Sunday, May 26, 2019

Pros and Cons of Probation and Parole Essay

1. What are the competing expectations for probation and countersign are often made scapegoats? Ameri croups want greater protection from crime term insisting that efforts to afford this protection do not jeopardize treasured constitutional rights. We want a system that deters would be miscreants an incapacitates those not deterred without imposing meaning(a) tax dollars . 3.How does the abolition of parole stop impact on probation? the abolishing of parole may increase the number of people on probation, for example Virgina abolished parole release in 1995 and the number of persons placed on probation more then double.5. Why can criminal justness in the United States be referred to as a system that is not systematic? There is a lack of joint planning and budgeting, or even systematic consultation, among the various agencies responsible for criminal justice. 7.Why cant it be determined whether a probationer or parolee has been rehabilitated by the absence of a new conviction? Con sider that most account crimes do not result in an arrest and conviction, futhermore, national crime victimization surveys reveal that most crimes are simply not reported to the police.9. How did the definitive concept of a social contract challenge disparate justice? The disparate practices of meeting out justice were forcefully challenged in the eighteenth cytosine with the advent of classicalism. During this era, philosophers, such as Montesquieu and Voltaire, spoke out aganist the French penal code and inhumane and ineqitable penalisations. Jean Rousseau and Cesare Beccaria argued for a radical concept of justice ground on equality. At a time when laws and law enforcement were unjust and disparate and punishments was often brultal, they demanded justice based on equality and punishment that was humane and symmetrical to the offence.11. How does neoclassicalism in criminal justice differ from classicalism? classicalism argued that law should respect neither rank nor station- all men are created equal-and punishment should be meted out with a better uniformity and in proportion to the offense. Neoclassicalism differs from classicalism because it maintains the basic belief in free will while paving the way for entry of mitigation into criminal justice by considering three areas, past criminal record, insanity and retardation, and age. Punishment can be justified only if crime is freely chosen, intentional, and rational. 13. How does determinism conflict with the concept of punishment? Punishment can be justified only if crime is freely chosen, intentional, and rational. Determinism conflicts with this because determinism suggest a lack of choice, particularly the belief that ones way is determined by physiological or psychological variables.15. How does the standard of evidence in a criminal trial differ from that of a probation or parole revocation hearing? Every jury is told that the facts pointing to the guilt of the defendent must be established bey ond reasonable doubt, as opposed to the preponderance of the evidence, which is the standard in the civil and some juvenile cases as well as probation and parole revocation hearings. 17. What are the sources of information for the preparation of presentence report? the source of information comes from philander records, examine other reports, such as psychiatric and school records and interview the defendent, spouse, employer, arresting officer, and victim. information from from the presentence investigation will be prepared in the from of a written preparation of presentence report.

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